We are honoured to invite you to the second Lecture on Fascism delivered by professor Aristotle Kallis. The Lecture is organized two yearly by the NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, and Fascism. Journal of Comparative Fascist Studies, published by Brill: 'When fascism became mainstream: the challenges of extremism in times of crisis' In his lecture, Aristotle Kallis will reflect on recent successes of the radical right in Europe (like the UKIP in the UK and the PVV in the Netherlands) and the growing voter disaffection with established parties. The distinction between radical extremist ideology and mainstream popular notions has become increasingly blurred as a result. This process shows disturbing similarities to the interbellum, when fascism transformed from a fringe movement into a dominant political paradigm that reversed decades of liberal progressive change. The relevance of this historical precedent and the challenges of the popularity of the radical populist movements cannot be underestimated. However, Kallis argues that the implosion of the ‘mainstream’ is the greatest catalyst for the success of fascism. Aristotle Kallis is professor in History at Lancaster University (UK). He has a long-standing research interest in totalitarianism, fascism and violence.